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Amino Acids Overview

Amino Acids

Organic compounds that combine to form proteins.

The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body:

· Growth and repair of tissue.

· Hormone synthesis.

· Regulate metabolic pathways for reproduction and proper immune system function.

· Transport of nutrients throughout the body.

· Can be used to provide energy (ATP) under certain condition.


Cannot be made by the body: Must come from food.


A BCAA involved in muscle development and repair.


A BCAA that helps to maintain nitrogen balance and energy supply.


Key for a healthy immune system and the formation of collagen and muscle tissue.


· Like Arginine, is a Sulphur containing essential AA.

· It helps the body to effectively process and remove fat.

· The body needs high levels of methionine to produce taurine, cysteine, and glutathione.


Forms important brain neurotransmitters [norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and their precursor L-dopa] and thyroid hormone which regulate metabolism.


· Maintains protein balance and supports normal growth and development.

· Involved in supporting the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, immune function, and liver function.

· It’s needed to produce serine and glycine that produce elastin, collagen and muscle tissue.

· Combined with methione and aspatic acid, threonine also helps to process fatty acids and prevent liver failure.


· Produces the neurotransmitter serotonin that affects emotions and mood.

· Needed for the manufacture of vitamin B3 (niacin).

· Assists with the regulation of blood sugar and prevents radical damage and cholesterol buildup.


· A BCAA that promotes the repair of tissues, energy prevision, blood sugar regulation, and normal growth and development.

· Involved in stimulating the central nervous system.

Histidine (for infants, not adults)

· Essential for infants to ensure the regulation of growth and natural development and repair mechanisms.

· The body needs it to produce histamine, glutamate, ferritin and haemoglobin.

· Essential for various metabolic reactions, energy and blood supply as well as detoxification of heavy metals.

· Other functions include the regulation of the blood pH and supporting the healing of wounds.


Produced by the body


· Alanine and Glutamine helps maintaining Amino Acid Metabolism in the body.

· Converted in the liver into pyruvate which helps in maintaining glucose levels in the blood.


· Transports nitrogen inside the body and has cell building capability.

· An important amino acid required for neuron development.

· Improves stamina of athletes.


· Combined with iron, copper, magnesium, and zinc to increase solubility of dietary supplements.

· Acts as a neurotransmitter for stimulating NMDA receptors.


· Major mediator of signal transduction in the CNS.

· Apart from protein synthesis, it plays a crucial role in brain metabolism.

· Used in the treatment of Schizophrenia patients.


Usually not essential, except in times of illness and stress


Heals wounds, detoxifies kidneys, immune and hormone maintenance, and artery dilation.


· N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) by doctors in an overdose of Acetaminophen.

· Treatment of chronic bronchitis.

· With nitroglycerin, improves better blood inflow which lowers chest pain felt by angina patients.

· Improves Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).


· Aids in faster muscle recovery.

· A nitrogen carrier that helps in synthesis of protein by the cells.

· Reduces the chances of infection in burn patients.

· Helps in healing wounds quickly.

· Administered intravenously to help kill infection bacteria post a surgery.


· Phenylketonuria  - body unable to produce phenylalanine and in low quantities can result in brain damage.

· Tyrosine aids in Phenylalanine production.

· Replenishes neurotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline) to help reduce stress.


· Combined with glutamate, might benefit the treatment of schizophrenia.

· May prevent ischemic stroke of the brain caused by the blockage of a blood vessel in the brain.

· Glycine under the tongue during the stroke may help limit the damage.


· Used in the urea cycle to help remove excess nitrogen from the body.

· Works as a catalyst that turns ammonia into urea, which is then removed via urination.


· Helps to form collagen, acts as a shock absorber, and reduces friction in the musculoskeletal system.

· Aids in Arteriosclerosis prevention by enabling the artery walls to release fat buildup in the bloodstream and decrease chances of blockage.


· Produces tryptophan and in turn synthesizes serotonin to improve mood.

· Also involved in the proper functioning of RNA and DNA, muscle formation, and immune maintenance.

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